Voices from the Field (2016-06-29)

What happens when you don’t excavate for two years? – reviewing excavation area protection measures

Caitlin R. O’Grady

Every season, we spend a lot of time and effort implementing measures to protect excavation areas between field seasons. This includes “wrapping” architecture, scarps and baulks with geotextile, a water permeable cloth made from thermally bonded non-woven polypropylene fibers. The geotextile protects these features minimizing erosion and plant growth. Following wrapping, we use rocks and “dirt bags” to ensure complete protection.

However, long term exposure to plants, animals and the elements between seasons cause the geotextile to degrade, which makes it necessary to “unwrap” and “rewrap” architecture and excavation areas.

Luckily, I work with a great team of people that make this process smooth – even on the two hottest days of the season! 46° and 47° C (that’s 115° and 117° F!) thus far.

Photo: Hakan Hatay

Photo: Hakan Hatay

In anticipation of this process, the conservation team unrolled geotextile to cut more manageable pieces to use in the field.

In anticipation of this process, the conservation team unrolled geotextile to cut more manageable pieces to use in the field.

We then “unwrap” the excavation area

We then “unwrap” the excavation area.

We then check architecture for stability.

We then check architecture for stability.

Finally, we are ready to “rewrap”! (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Finally, we are ready to “rewrap”! (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

And more teamwork on one of the hottest days of the season! (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

And more teamwork on one of the hottest days of the season! (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Look forward to more posts from Gygaia Projects over the course of the year!

Voices from the Field (2016-06-19)

A new season at Kaymakçı!

Chris Roosevelt & Christina Luke

We’re back in the field for another excavation season of the Kaymakçı Archaeological Project. Storage depots and excavation areas have been reopened, the team has arrived from universities in Turkey, Europe, and the US, general orientations are complete, and we are moving fully forward to continue to explore this ever surprising citadel from around 3500 years ago.

We hope you enjoy following the project’s progress as the season unfolds!

 

It’s back to early mornings again for an enthusiastic team (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

We broke ground in excavation areas at Kaymakçı, overlooking scenic Lake Marmara and environs, and held introductory orientations for participants on site and in labs (Photo: Chris Roosevelt)

Catherine Scott (Boston University PhD Candidate and Koç University ANAMED Fellow) discusses excavation strategies with Sinan Ünlüsoy (KAP Assistant Director, Yaşar University) (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Training in the recording system with Ebru Ayten (Middle East Technical University), as well as Veli Tekin and Mustafa Çelebı (Büyükbelen) (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Haley Chasteene (recent UCSD grad), József Puskás (Babeş-Bolyai University), and Jana Mokrišová (University of Michigan PhD Candidate and Koç University ANAMED Fellow) plot their plan of action (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Necmettin Akar (Büyükbelen), Rojda Arslan and Hazel Özmen (Koç University), and Dan Plekhov (Brown University) consider different problems across an excavation area (Photo: Hakan Hatay)

Look forward to more posts from Gygaia Projects over the course of the year!

Voices from the Field (2016-02-24)

Glorious Mud: Working with Mudbrick in the Archaeological Lab at Koç University

Jana Mokrisova

Although writing my dissertation is the primary purpose of my stay at the Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations (ANAMED), I have also had the opportunity to continue working with my field dataset – earthen architecture in Kaymakçı, including mudbrick. Once every week or two I make a trip to Koç University’s campus in Sarıyer, northern Istanbul, to work in the archaeological lab there. The “hike” up north presents a good opportunity for me to get away from the dynamic (but at times raucous) Istiklal Street. The campus is located in a forested but windy area, and at times it is difficult to believe than I am still in the same city.

A mixture of earth, water, and organic temper, mudbrick is a very versatile and popular building medium used as early as the Neolithic period in Mesopotamia and Anatolia (as early as 10,000 years ago!). At Kaymakçı, mudbricks were used for a variety of building purposes, and one of my aims is to reconstruct the logic of Bronze Age architecture. In order to do so, I describe the basic properties of mudbricks, such as color, shape, size, texture, character of inclusions, and hardness. I also note manufacture process and preservation. Furthermore, I am interested in seeing how communities at the site organized mudbrick production. By looking at diversity or similarity in mudbrick appearance and composition, I can assess if people selected the same source materials and additives and if they produced them using similar production steps. Interestingly, earthen materials were not limited to bricks – they were also used to cover roofs, as is suggested by this piece of daub.

The archaeological lab at Koç is a great environment for such an investigation, as it has all the necessary equipment and space for processing, as well as the support of dedicated staff.

Look forward to more posts from Gygaia Projects over the course of the year!

Voices from the Field (2014-12-03)

An early December greeting…

… with updates from two more of our project participants on their professional outreach activities this fall. Enjoy!

A student presentation in Delaware

Remi Kneski

On October 30th I presented on “Gygaia Projects: the Kaymakci Archaeological Project (KAP)” at the University of Delaware.

The presentation focused on my time in the conservation lab on site and in Tekelioğlu. A typical work day for me consisted of cleaning the various types of artifacts coming out of the field, including ceramic and metal items, testing the conductivity of these objects, and cataloging them in the database to make sure their record would be saved for future purposes.

On-site conservation of a stack of three ceramic vessels

On-site conservation of a stack of three ceramic vessels

The team’s conservators and I also spent a lot of time testing different mixtures of mortar to find one that would eventually be used for the consolidation of excavated architectural features. In addition, we participated in the removal of several ceramic vessels from the excavation areas and, once they got back to the lab, cleaned and reconstructed them to the best of our abilities.

A view of closed excavation areas at Kaymakçı from September 2014.

A view of closed excavation areas at Kaymakçı from September 2014.

When it came to be the end of the season, we closed each of the four excavation areas, which entailed mortaring loose architecture, covering areas with geotextile, and weighing the geotextile down with sand bags and surrounding rocks. It was an incredible and knowledge-producing experience and I can’t wait to return in 2015!

Thermal Zoning in Vernacular Anatolian Settlements at VerSuS 2014

Tim Frank

Representing my co-authors and Gygaia Projects Directors, Christina Luke and Chris Roosevelt, I traveled to Spain in September to present work at the International Conference on Vernacular Heritage, Sustainability and Earthen Architecture (VerSus). It was my first trip to Spain and I must say that I was completely overcome by the quality of urban space that infused places like Valencia and Barcelona. The paper entitled, “Thermal Zoning and Natural Ventilation in Vernacular Anatolian Settlements” was presented in front of a full audience in the School of Architecture’s Aula Magna at the Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. The conference theme was, “Lessons from Vernacular Heritage to Sustainable Architecture” and its primary goal was to identify fundamental principles from vernacular heritage while exploring ways to integrate those principles into the design of more eco-responsible buildings.

Renderings and simulations of a sector of the central Anatolian Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük

Renderings and simulations of a sector of the central Anatolian Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük

Our contribution used state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platforms to examine how early populations achieved thermal zoning by putting basic building attributes and material constituents to task, finely attuning building assemblages to ever-changing factors such as prevailing airflow. Two Anatolian settlements, Çatalhöyük (above) and Mardin (below), were analyzed using CFD platforms to disclose their respective passive cooling strategies relative to variable inputs, including wind velocity and direction. The presentation reported the findings from this analysis and discussed how these attributes produced comfort levels that rival contemporary standards, including air-change rates at 1.5 meters per second. The presentation also demonstrated how these vernacular strategies from antiquity have been adapted for use in the design of the Gygaia Projects research and educational center to passively maintain thermal comfort while offsetting energy consumption.

Renderings and simulations of a sector of the southeastern Anatolian Roman (and modern) site of Mardin

Renderings and simulations of a sector of the southeastern Anatolian Roman (and modern) site of Mardin

Voices from the Field (2014-08-05)

“All good things must come to an end”…

… at least temporarily. The excavation areas are now closed, and – in partnership with the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Manisa Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, and Yaşar University – the Boston University Kaymakçı Archaeological Project has now rounded out its inaugural season! These new excavations supplement ten seasons of survey in the region, reinforcing the importance of Kaymakçı in our understanding of Bronze Age communities in the Marmara Lake basin and western Anatolia and the nature of their connections to central Anatolian and Aegean communities.

We are grateful to everyone who participated: 60+ crew members from communities in the region as well as those affiliated with various universities in the US (Boston, Cincinnati, Delaware, Michigan, Mississippi State, Penn, Virgina Tech, UC Davis), Europe (Charles (Prague), Freiburg, Gröningen, UCL), and Turkey (Ege, Koç, Nevşehir, Yaşar, Yeditepe).

  • Geophysics Team

We look forward to next year when the excavation areas and laboratories will reopen for what we hope to be another fruitful season. In the meantime, our work will focus on the many new opportunities brought forth by this season’s results, always making the most of collaborations with faculty and students throughout the academic year:

  • 3D illustrations of objects, architecture, and landscapes
  • lab analyses focusing on human-environmental interactions and subsistence economies
  • ongoing documentation of oral histories
  • collaborative development of a regional management plan
  • interpretation of new results and publication of previous work
  • continued design of the Gygaia Projects research and educational center, and
  • grant writing and fundraising to support all these activities.

Our partners still in Tekelioğlu and at Kaymakçı will continue to assist in many aspects of the project, too, from planning gardens, to preparing for the construction of the research and educational center, to remaining vigilant in the long-term protection and preservation of the site.

Also ongoing will be the weather station’s recorder – what better way to understand the impact of annual cycles of environmental conditions? Accompanying our WeatherBug and assisting our site guard, Ferit, will be an “eye in the sky,” a new night-vision enabled security system to help monitor the site while we are away.

Thanks to all for following our “Voices” from the eight weeks of this season – we’ll look forward to keeping you as up to date as possible over the coming months.

Until then, a traditional watery goodbye!

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Voices from the Field (2014-07-22)

Socializing

We periodically take advantage of our proximity to Lake Marmara by holding a scenic mangal (bbq) on the platform where fisherman sell their haul. Makes for a great team photo spot, as well!

Excavation

Nick Gauthier

The summer heat has finally set in at Kaymakçı. Thanks to the weather station on site, we always know exactly how hot it is in the field and, for those brave enough to check, how hot it will get before the day ends. Team members gladly exchange tips for tying headscarves and keeping water bottles cold.

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Words for essentials like su (water), gölge (shade), and ruzgar (wind) have become part of everyone’s vocabulary. The winds help with the heat, but the 45 mph gusts present their own problems.

Nick2

As archaeologists, it is tempting to focus on exotic finds and burned layers that hint at interactions with other sites in the region and highlight the importance of Kaymakçı in the ancient Mediterranean world. But our understanding of the site depends equally on uncovering the daily rhythms of its ancient inhabitants, and our daily battles with the wind and sun encourage us always to think on this smaller scale of individuals.

Environmental/Botanical Analyses

Anna Graham

Since our last paleoethnobotany update, flotation has continued in full force. As the days grow hotter, the flotation tank is the coolest place to be.

Anna1

In addition to floating the samples, we spend much of our time processing materials that come out of the soil samples. This involves sorting out the pottery, bone, and other things that don’t float in water.

Anna2

Landscape Architecture

Terry Clements

This week the design team has been working on schematic plans for a new research and educational center to house future team members during excavation seasons. Tim Frank and Manny Moss are also looking at this season’s excavation areas and creating 3D models of what’s been found so far. In both projects Tim is studying wind flow patterns and how buildings influence airflow for natural cooling.

We could have used some cooling breezes this week when the temperature reached 104 degrees!! While we are sitting in the old village schoolhouse, the representation team’s office space, it is hard to imagine that local children got much studying done in the still-hot room.

I have been working on refining the conceptual site design for the new research and educational center as the architecture team is refining the building designs. We’ve incorporated team meeting areas and some garden spaces into the plan. Once the soil floatation studies are analyzed and ancient plant species identified, we hope to build a Bronze Age demonstration garden. It will be a nice visual complement to the vegetable garden intended to help feed the team in future years. In the meantime, I’m using more analog means to study the local landscape.

Terry1

Ceramics

Peter Pavuk

Pottery, or rather fragments of it, are without any exaggeration the most common and numerous find-category on any excavation. And its value is just as manifold. In the first place, it helps us to date the excavated contexts, since fashion was constantly changing even in the Bronze Age, so too did the typology of ceramic vessel shapes. Paying closer attention to the production technology teaches us about a wider-reaching network of contacts and exchange of knowledge. The know-how was just as important (and often treasured) as it is today. Finally, search for imports or new decorative techniques, can reveal potentially far-reaching trade routes.

Going through the freshly excavated lots of pottery, often still wet in the drying sieves, made me soon aware that there seems to be a clear pattern of difference between the various excavation areas. A more thorough look at selected contexts revealed that at least two distinctive ceramic phases can be identified. Their date can be further pin-pointed by drawing parallels from other sites, but since most of them are hundreds of kilometers away, Kaymakçı will certainly become THE yardstick for the definition of ceramic development in Central Western Anatolia.

Voices from the Field (2014-06-24)

Activities continued apace this week with the Kaymakçı Archaeological Project. We continue to be paperless thanks to the technological expertise of many team members and the patience of many more! The 3D recording of trenches, samples (especially ceramics), and landscapes provides not only visualizations of ancient entities as well as our own workflows and knowledge bases, but also new opportunities for conceptualizing and understanding the holistic endeavor of the human experience over time.

Young Society Leaders – YSL

Elected as Young Society Leaders to the American Turkish Society (ATS) in Fall 2013, Christina and Chris have had opportunities to expand their networks in Turkey and to understand where and how politics, design and development, field work, and education fit best within the arc of policies and U.S. – Turkish relations. A recent summit in İstanbul – a first for the YSL group – was a great success. Christina presented on fieldwork, cultural diplomacy, and policy (“Cultural Relations in the Gediz Valley: US – Turkish – EU Initiatives”) and Chris focused on the many impacts of technology on field research (“Research + Technology: A 21st Century Approach to the Past in the Gediz Valley”).

http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/young-society-leaders-gather-in-istanbul-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=68088&NewsCatID=341

Link to YSLs 2013:

http://www.turkishny.com/english-news/5-english-news/132916-the-american-turkish-society-announces-third-class-of-young-society-leaders/printing

Food!

Our diet has shifted as the hotter and drier summer season begins. The crisp lettuce is now gone; the tomato plants are almost fully ripe; the peppers are not far behind; and patches of mint and oregano grace the fields around us. Among the staples of our diet is now purslane (semiz otu). It grows in abundance as an undergrowth crop in olive groves and even fallow fields.  Our cooks have mastered the use of this specific ‘weed’ in many ways, but our favorites are to have it sautéed with garlic and covered with a savory yogurt sauce, mixed with rice or bulgur, or served fresh in cucumber and tomato salads with a hint of mint. Another perennial favorite is stuffed grape leaves rolled long and tight here in the village and stuffed with a rice and bulgur mix and flavored with mint and olive oil (here called sarma, elsewhere dolma). In addition to the fresh breads, we’ve also been treated to fresh gözleme and pişi (complete with cheese made by our hosts as well as pekmez, a grape molasses). The majority of the ingredients for these dishes – grapes, grape leaves, parsley, purslane, onions, and mint – come from the local farm.

As our paleoethnobotany work begins in earnest (with the floatation tank now complete thanks to the expertise of John (Mac) Marston and the welders in the Salihli sanayi), we hope to learn much more about ancient diets.

In addition to enjoying the food, we are continuing to enjoy long days of hard work. The excavation team is seated around the breakfast table at 5:15 am, the conservation and lab crews at 6:15am. Below are the highlights from some of the project’s work over the past week. Look for more to come next week!

Oral Histories and Communities

A long-term component of our work here is to understand landscape changes over time. While we’ve got a firm understanding of the past from 10 years of survey, as well as an understanding of recent policy and landscape changes in the Gediz Valley itself, we hadn’t had the opportunity to work on deep histories within specific communities. We’re in the process of doing so now in academic contexts (via publication) and hope to unveil a community-based website initiative by late Fall. Ongoing conversations with community members include walking tours, object biographies, and place-based experiences. Here cyber-space becomes increasingly meaningful in the context of people-to-people relationships and life-long learning.

Excavation

Jana Mokrišová

This week at Kaymakçı we started uncovering selected parts of the citadel. In my excavation area, we first excavated the topsoil, which was regularly plowed in the past and as such contained modern and ancient artifacts. After having removed it, we began to explore the Bronze Age occupation at the site. In conjunction with architectural features including walls, we have found pottery for storage, eating, and cooking purposes, bone, stone tools such as grinders, and some small finds. All these different classes of artifacts together give us clues about how people lived here and how they engaged with the environment around them.

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Sunrise over Kaymakçı. The excavation team begins work at 6am.

Architecture

Tim Frank

Our team is currently focused on the schematic design of our planned research and educational center, a mixed-use facility that will support all Gygaia Projects activities for years to come! Our initial attention has been focused on the development of highly permeable building types, which establish gradual transitions between enclosed interior spaces and exposed outdoor spaces that orient towards the strong characteristics of the immediate context. This approach also allows the region’s abundant natural daylight and cooling prevailing breezes to permeate deep into building interiors. Hand sketching, physical modeling, and digital rendering are used to measure this relationship between interior and exterior space.

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Landscape Architecture

Brian Katen and Chris Calorusso

The landscape architects worked this week on design and development at the site of the research and educational center in coordination with the architects. Work included generating design studies and design alternatives based on the spatial and functional relationships of the site, views, ecology, pedestrian and vehicular access and circulation, visitor experience, and site security.

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Weather Station

Tim Frank and Chris Roosevelt

We installed a weather station this week at Kaymakçı! Weather data from the excavation site will be transmitted real-time to devices around the world via the WeatherBug network. This data will also be logged long-term to understand better the environmental conditions affecting our conservation and restoration of archaeological remains as well as Bronze Age approaches to spatial organization and design with respect to natural elements.

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Conservation

Remy Kneski

This week in conservation we tested three mortar mixes that included different ratios of cement, sand, lime, and soil to see the different characteristics of each. We also analyzed the stickiness of four soil samples that came from excavation areas and locations on the living landscape. Finally, we have been cleaning artifacts that have been coming into the conservation lab from the field.

conservation1  conservation3  conservation2

Faunal Analysis

Adam DiBattista

This week we’ve begun to build the beginnings of a comparative collection. Before cooking local sheep and fish used for our meals, the faunal team worked to preserve and clean the bones for future study. The modern bones provide an invaluable means of studying archaeological bones. In addition to preparing specimens for later comparative collections, we have begun to analyze bones recovered from the excavation.

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Adam DiBattista examining faunal material from the excavation

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A fish of Lake Marmara